Like its Central Asian neighbours, Turkmenistan was an important transit point for travellers on the Silk Road and a crossroads of empires throughout the ages. The Parthians, Persians and Seljuks all left their mark, as did the forces of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. Today, the remains of the Silk Road cities of Merv and Kunya-Urgench are Turkmenistan's biggest draw for visitors with many impressive mosques, mausoleums and fortresses. The capital Ashgabat is a huge contrast, noted for the many futuristic and somewhat bizarre constructions ordered by the late President Niyazov, which have transformed a city destroyed by a 1948 earthquake. Explore in depth highlights of Turkmenistan.
|Time zone:||GMT +5 (Turkmenistan standard time)||Daylight savings: None|
|Main languages:||Turkmen||Other languages: Russian, Uzbek|
Turkmen new manat (TMT)|
€1 = m3.92, $1 = m0.00, £1 = m4.67
(rates as of Sep 2016)
|Internet Domain:||.tm||International Dialling Code: 993|
For help planning your trip to Turkmenistan including visas, vaccinations, currency exchange, flights, accomodation and insurance, see our Turkmenistan trip planning page.
Further information on Turkmenistan
Discover more about Turkmenistan - the country's geogrpahy and natural features, an assessment of its status on freedom and rights and data on the country's population and economy.
Geography & Natural Features
Total area: 488,100 sq km (0 sq km under water)
Coastline: 1,768 km (Caspian Sea)
Climate: Arid subtropical climate with hot, dry summers and cold but mild winters. Best visited from April to June and September to October.
Highest mountain: Gora Ayribaba (3,139m)
Freedom & Rights
Summary status and rankings for Turkmenistan from classifications of different organisations measuring political and economic freedom, democracy and civil rights. See more details of these rankings.
|Freedom in the World||Not Free||-|
|Democracy Index||Authoritarian regime||160/167|
|Press Freedom||Very serious situation||176/179|
|ILGA LGBT rights||No rights||-|
|Corruption Perceptions||High corruption||169/174|
Other Data & Links
Status: Independent Country
Population: 5,171,943 (rank: 118/196) Density: 10.5 people/sq km (rank: 180/196)
Ethnic groups: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
GDP (PPP): $55.16 billion GDP per capita: $9,700 (rank: 99/195)